Summary LSA can be of two flavors: type 3 and type 4. In this tutorial we will focus on type 3 LSA. Type 3 LSAs are generated by ABR. They represent networks from an area and are sent to the rest of the areas in OSPF domain. Type 1 LSAs don’t cross area boundary, so Area Border Router (ABR) uses type 3 LSA to inform other areas about networks learned in its area. Type 3 LSA uses network address as Link ID and router id of advertising router as ADV Router in OSPF database.
By default a type 3 LSA contains information about only one network learned in the area, so, ABR (Area Border Router) will generate one type 3 LSA per network learned via type 1 LSA. This can cause serious problems in case there are a lot of networks to advertise, because a lot of LSA will be generated by ABRs. Area border routers can generate Type 3 LSAs that advertise summarized networks instead of single networks. Summarization is highly recommended in large OSPF domains, it can significantly improve the performance of the network. If you need a guide on how to perform summarization, have a look at OSPF internal route summarization tutorial. For now let’s consider following topology:
Here we have two ABRs. ABR1 will generate type 3 LSAs for network 192.168.0.0/24 in area 10 and send it in area 0. Also it will generate type 3 LSA for networks 192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24 in area 0 and will send them in area 10. ABR2 will perform a similar operation, i.e. it will generate type 3 link state advertisement in area 20 for network 192.168.3.0/24 and send it in area 0, and for networks 192.168.1.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24 in area 0 that will send in area 20.
Routers in the scenario are configured according to data provided in the picture, with router IDs labeled on routers. Let’s have a look at the OSPF database on BB router. For this purpose use “
show ip ospf database“
BB#sh ip ospf database ... output omitted ... Summary Net Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum 192.168.0.0 220.127.116.11 1025 0x8000000A 0x00EDCA 192.168.3.0 18.104.22.168 966 0x8000000A 0x00901D BB#
In the output you see that we have two summary LSAs, network 192.168.0.0 is advertised by ABR1 with router id 22.214.171.124 and network 192.168.3.0 is advertised by ABR2 which has router id 126.96.36.199. That’s expectable. Now I will issue the same command on R1 that resides in area 10, here you might see something unexpected.
R1#sh ip ospf database ... output omitted ... Summary Net Link States (Area 10) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum 192.168.1.0 188.8.131.52 1556 0x8000000A 0x00E2D4 192.168.2.0 184.108.40.206 1556 0x80000009 0x003E6F 192.168.3.0 220.127.116.11 1556 0x80000009 0x00970B R1#
Here you have all summary LSAs generated by ABR1. Everything is ok but why is 192.168.3.0 summary LSA generated by ABR1 and not by ABR2? Well, it was generated by ABR 2 with router id 18.104.22.168 as you have seen previously, but ABR1 being a border router changes advertiser router id to its router id. Use “
show ip ospf database summary” to get a detailed view about database.
R1#show ip ospf database summary OSPF Router with ID (22.214.171.124) (Process ID 1) Summary Net Link States (Area 10) Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 872 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 192.168.1.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 126.96.36.199 LS Seq Number: 8000000B Checksum: 0xE0D5 Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 10 Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 872 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 192.168.2.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 188.8.131.52 LS Seq Number: 8000000A Checksum: 0x3C70 Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 20 Routing Bit Set on this LSA LS age: 873 Options: (No TOS-capability, DC, Upward) LS Type: Summary Links(Network) Link State ID: 192.168.3.0 (summary Network Number) Advertising Router: 184.108.40.206 LS Seq Number: 8000000A Checksum: 0x950C Length: 28 Network Mask: /24 TOS: 0 Metric: 30 R1#
R1#show ip route ... output omitted ... Gateway of last resort is not set C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 192.168.1.0/24 [110/20] via 192.168.0.1, 05:27:17, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 192.168.2.0/24 [110/30] via 192.168.0.1, 05:27:07, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 192.168.3.0/24 [110/40] via 192.168.0.1, 05:27:07, FastEthernet0/0 R1#
The routes learned from type 3 summary LSAs are marked as “IA” which means that they belong to another area (inter area routes).